Transcribed by Edward A. Cooper - firstname.lastname@example.org
Introduction January 5, 1895
The following sketch of a Pioneer Family from Prince Edward's Island to California in 1849 & 50" was written at the request of Mr. William Walsh of San Francisco as material for an article in the Overland Monthly, by John W. Cooper, a member of the family.
"A Pioneer family from Prince Edward's Island to California in 1849 & 50".
Captain William Cooper who brought his family in the ship Packett from Prince Edward Island in 1849 to California was born in Lochee near Dundee, Scotland, on the first of January 1786.
His father was a stone-mason and was killed by a fall from a building he was working on and which was being erected for the proprietor of the estate on which he was living.
His widow was left in very humble circumstances, with three small children, two boys and a girl, to provide for. The gentleman of the estate offered to help her in various ways, but she did not wish to accept aid without compensation, so William her elder son and the subject of this narrative, was put to work on the estate, chiefly as a herd boy; and in the cottage where he lodged, there lived an elderly widow lady who taught him the first rudiments of his limited education. But William, though an apt scholar, did not like his lonesome herders life, having only his dog for a companion for months at a time, so he ran away.
When eleven years of age, he went to sea as a cabin-boy, and worked his way up to be captain before he was twenty-three.
He followed the sea continuously for about twenty three years, his voyages being chiefly to ports in the Gulf of St. Lawrence, Baltic, Mediterranean and Black seas. (added note by EAC, he was also at the Battle of Trafalgar. Lord Nelson, commanding, 1805).
In January, 1817, he married a Miss Sarah Glover of the city of London, England, by whom he had a family of nine sons and three daughters; and there his first child, a son, was born on the fourth of November of the same year. The following summer (1818), he moved his wife and child to Charlotte Town, the capitol of Prince Edward Island; and a short time afterwards gave up his seafaring life and settled upon a piece of rented wilderness land at the head of a little river or bay in township 56 in the eastern part of the island. His inexperience with land caused him to make a poor selection. It proved to be poor and wet, and very expensive to bring into a good state of cultivation after the timber was cleared off. Other settlers frequently told him that he could never make a farm there, but being a man of strong will and great hope and determined to try; and with years of patient hopeful labor, he did finally succeed in making it a very fine farm.
His isolation from other settlers, the want of roads, the vigorous winters and the torment of mosquitoes in summer, together with the poor returns of the farm, caused many trials and privations to the Captain and his family for the first few years of their country life. Owing to these conditions, he was early induced to name his farm "Sailors Hope", by which it is still known (Note by D.B.H.: Sailor's Hope P.O. at Howe Bay 'community' 8 mi SW of Souris (1884-1913) - Lot 56).
Though the Captain was chiefly a self-educated man, he was well informed, being a great reader and a good mathematician; and his duties as a sea-captain had caused him to become familiar with the nature and use of medicine and the treatment of diseases, so that he soon became quite a useful and prominent man in the surrounding country as doctor, surveyor, and adviser and peacemaker in all matters of dispute among the people.
The Government also soon gave him some little offices, which helped to make him still more useful and prominent.
After the Island was acquired from France by the British, they divided it into townships of 20,000 acres each, and granted it in such lots to noblemen and their sons who had served the Government in certain capacities, upon condition that they were to settle two hundred German Protestants upon each township on certain terms, within a limited time.
When the Captain leased his farm, Lord James Townshend was the proprietor. Shortly after this, his being killed (Edward Abell, agent) by a tenant (Patrick Pearce) in a difficulty about rent, his Lordship appointed Captain (Cooper) agent of the estate. In this capacity, he took an active interest in developing and improving it. He opened up roads, built a set of grist mills and encouraged and induced people to settle on it.
But his experience and observation soon satisfied him that to clear up this wilderness land, put all necessary buildings and improvements on it, pay a cash rental to absentee proprietors and then lose it at the end of a forty or eighty year lease, was a hard fate for the tenant. In order to make it easier for the tenants to pay their rent, he built a vessel and loaded her with lumber for the English Market; turning the labor of the products of the tenant into the enterprise; by this means, he made his Lordship the largest payment he had ever received from his property. At the same time, the Captain represented to his Lordship the hardships of the tenantry, and the justice of giving them a chance to purchase their improvements and their land upon reasonable terms. But instead of accomplishing any better terms for the tenantry, as he had hoped, it had the opposite effect, his Lordship was induced to believe that his property was becoming very valuable, and that the tenants were all making fortunes, and the result was the Captain lost the agency. During his agency, he had acquired a knowledge of the terms upon which these townships were granted, and that they were not fulfilled, that a former governor had established a Court of Escheat, and that two townships were escheated to the Crown; and that the proprietors had managed to get the court abolished: so he commenced an agitation to have it reestablished.
This took him into politics. He was sent to the Legislature of the Province and soon after became it's Speaker; and was twice sent as a delegate to the Colonial office in London in the interest of the tenantry. But the influence of the proprietors was too powerful to allow a Court of Escheat to be established again. After many years agitation, a compromise measure was established by the enacting of the Land Purchase Bill, by which the Provincial Government bought out the rights and then sold to the former tenantry upon reasonable terms, so that all could become freeholders.
As the Captain's family grew up under his teachings of industry and economy, they soon began to acquire property, and through the aid of some legacies left them by relatives in London, were enabled to enter into shipbuilding and lumbering for the English market; which proved very profitable for a few years. The Captain and his second and third sons sailing their vessels, as master and mates, respectively; his eldest managing the business at home.
The cold winters of the Island, the poor character of it's soil, together with the unwillingness of the proprietors to sell their lands to their tenants, had created a desire in the Captain for some time past, to move his family to a milder climate, and where they could purchase and own their homes. But their shipbuilding enterprise delayed it until the California gold mines were discovered. California had been talked about before, but the family were afraid of the Indians, and the finding of the gold mines was thought to remove that danger, so in the fall of 1848, they began the building of a brigantine called the Packett, of two hundred and nine tons (ships articles list as 182 tons, EAC), no expense was spared to make her a strong and safe sea-craft. She was coppered and copper fastened and was furnished with two bilge-keels in order to keep her from rolling, also to make her sail close to the wind, and to rest easily if she took the ground; the vessel was rigged so as to be easily managed, as the Captain intended to sail her chiefly with his own family.
She was built near the mouth of Grand River, and sailed from that port to California on the 9th of December, 1849. She had a very mixed cargo on board, intended for the use of the family in their new home, as well as for the voyage. There were two years provisions, building material for new homes, machinery, farming implements and seed, a variety of lumber, the remnants of store and numerous household goods and other things; also some sheep, hogs and a cow, with a quantity of vegetables and hay.
In discussing their removal to California, the family entertained two different views as to the proper course to pursue. The Captainís plan was to take all his family with him, also such supplies and necessaryís as could be afforded, go up one of the California rivers, where land could be taken up; live aboard the vessel until a home could be established, then for a part of the family to sail and earn something with the vessel; and in case of great disappointment, or dissatisfaction with the country, to return in the vessel to their homes and property on the Island, which were not sold. The rest of the family wished to load the vessel with coal and for the Captain, with two or three of his sons to go and see the country, and if they liked it, to secure a home and to either come or send for the rest of the family. The Captain, being accustomed to rule and have his way, won, and his plan had to be adopted.
The family, consisting of the Captain, his wife (Sarah), six sons, three having died in infancy, and three daughters left for California. The order in age of the children was; John W., William, Malvina, Adolphus, Oscar, George, David, Rowena and Caroline. Johns wife (Margaret), and her sister Mary, daughters of Captain Davidson, Malvinaís husband, James Morrow, the builder of the vessel, and their son; and Miss Sarah Glover, a niece of the Captain, were all taken on board the Packet there were also, William Morrow, a brother of James, William Baker, and a Captain Mitchel taken as part of the crew, who were to work their passage. Two cabin passengers, Mr. Nelson and Mr. Brown, and four steerage passengers: 25 persons, all told.
The positions filled by the family on board were as follows: Captain Cooper, master; John W. Cooper, steward; William Cooper, 1st mate; Adolphus Cooper, 2nd mate; James Morrow, ship carpenter; Captain Mitchel, William Morrow, William Baker, Oscar Cooper, George Cooper and David Cooper, seamen. The cooking was done by the family.
A heavy northwest snow storm hurried the Captain away before he got things completely arranged on board ship, for fear the harbor would freeze. This storm lasted for many days, and took the vessel nearly to the Trade Winds; and besides the discomforts of sea sickness, caused the family their first misfortune, the loss of their milk cow; in the hurry to get to sea, the place prepared for the cow was not padded, and the severity of the storm making so many persons sea sick, and so few able to manage the vessel, it was impossible to attend to the cow, and she was injured so that she never recovered. After nursing her for several weeks, she was thrown overboard with great regret.
As the vessel was running before the storm, she rolled considerably; but the bilge-keels proved a great stay to her, and did so throughout the voyage, and held her to windward of all other vessels on a close haul.
The Captain had planned her for a safe and comfortable sea boat, and such she proved to be, as she scarcely ever shipped any seas; but she was not a fast sailer.
Two weeks brought the vessel into finer weather, and pleasanter sailing, so sickness was about over, and all went well.
The sheep, hogs and poultry did well, and furnished fresh meat twice a week throughout the voyage. There being plenty of good water, fresh meat, vegetables and other supplies aboard, the people remaining healthy, the Captain did not enter at any port. Twelve weeks brought the vessel to Cape Horn, but it took her (6?) weeks to get around, owing to storms of head winds. Shortly after this, a son was born to Mrs. (Malvina) James Morrow, and mother & child did well.
After sailing north a few weeks, the Captain made the mistake of keeping too close to land and consequently, got into calms and head winds, so that he didnít arrive at San Francisco until the 23rd of July, 1850.
Although the ship made a safe and comfortable trip with good health prevailing and nothing occurring to mar the good feeling between all on board, and although there were many incidents to change the monotony, such as seeing or speaking another vessel, spearing the active dolphin, also the bonito and other fish, hooking the albatross and other seagulls; taking rides in a rowboat and catching sea turtles, with many other interesting sights, yet it proved a long and tiresome voyage, all were glad when anchor was dropped for the first time in nearly eight months.
After the Captain arrived in San Francisco, he found things very different than what he expected. The maritime laws then would not allow him to turn the vessel into American property as intended, nor could he move her in American waters without keeping a Customs House Officer on board at six dollars per diem, until her cargo was discharged. Any money required for new rigging and supplies to send her to sea again would cost 10% per month interest.
The largest portion of the family didnít wish to return to the Island at once, nor to go to sea again, as even the youngest boys, 15 and 18 years of age, could earn from 4 to 6 dollars per day on shore, and young girls could get $75.00 per month for housework, and as the family didnít wish to be separated, and all the good lands of the country seemed to be covered with Spanish Grants and held very high prices, they made up their minds to remain in San Francisco: therefor, it was soon decided to discharge the cargo, sell the vessel, divide up the property which had been left there, and leave it to the future to decide whether the family should all meet again on the Island, or in California.
The family then secured some lots, put up temporary homes, and moved onto the shore. The cargo was of little value in the city, excepting about 40 tons of coal, which sold for $42.00 per ton by weight.
The vessel was sold to a New Zealand Company for $7000.00, about one third her cost. The Captain then went back to the Island, where he was again sent to the Legislature, and where he remained, until the Compromise Land Purchase bill was enacted, having served the Legislature about 35 years. He died shortly after, at the age of 83 (or 82 ? 6-10-1867 on marker).
The family landed with about 75 chickens, some ducks and a young sow pig, all of which proved to be very valuable property. Chickens worth $5.00 apiece, eggs $6.00 a dozen, ducks at $25.00 per pair, and the pig $100.00. The ten weeks the family lived on board the vessel in the harbor, they remained quite healthy; shortly after moving on shore, the change of water, and using the wild Spanish beef did not agree with them, and it proved to be a very sickly autumn. Sickness and death came to the family, and now their real misfortunes began, Mrs. Captain Cooper (Sarah), Mrs. J.W. Cooper (Margaret) and her only child, born on board the vessel, in the harbor, Mrs. James Morrow (Malvina), wife and youngest son, and Oscar Cooper all died within four months after their arrival, and all the other members had severe sicknesses.
This broke up the families and induced the remaining portion to believe that San Francisco was a very unhealthy place to live, and they determined to seek a more suitable and healthy place where they could take up Government land for homes.
Early in the spring of 1851, two of the brothers and a sister (Caroline, 13) went to Humbolt County, and their statements of the country, and it's advantages, induced the other three brothers, and a sister who were in other portions of the state, to move there in the fall, and under the faith in the representation made by the people that the government had made treaties with the Indians to go into reservations and that they would not disturb or interfere with the settlers, the brothers took up preemption claims with a water mill site so as to follow the pursuits they had been accustomed to. They at once commenced to improve their property by building homes, and cultivating and stocking their lands. But trouble soon began between the whites and Indians, the latter were scattered throughout the country in small communities or families. Unprincipled white men would abuse them and even ravish their women far advanced in pregnancy, and with knives and pistols beat off and wound the bucks when they tried to protect their squaws. The wrong doings of the Indians were often too severely punished, while that done by the whites went entirely unpunished. These conditions soon made trouble for the settlers who were generally among the best class of the citizens, and who were inclined to treat the Indians justly, and although the Cooper brothers treated the Indians justly and were friendly towards them, yet they were among the greatest sufferers from the acts of these natives for wrongs done them by other whites, as the Indian seldom distinguishes between friend and foe when revenging a wrong done him.
During the summer of 1852, the Cooper brothers and a few other settlers opened a trail, at great expense, to the Sacramento Valley, in order to get immigrant cattle from there to stock and work their farms. William, the second oldest brother, bought some cattle there (Sac. Valley), and got them within ninety miles of home, when he got crippled by an ox falling on him. He had to stop at a place called Hay Fork (between Red Bluff and Eureka), at Dr. Weeds home, and send to his brothers for help. Two of them, Adolphus and David, were fitted out with animals and supplies and started to help him, but they were killed, and their animals and effects taken by the Indians at their first camping ground (head of Little Yager Cr., 22 miles from Eel River). Another brother, George, and a hired man were sent by another route, but when they got to Hay Fork, William had left for home with some emigrants, and left the cattle, as the snow was too deep on the mountains to get them home. George gathered up what he could find, and took them back to the Sacramento to be pastured until spring, and came home by water.
The winter of 1852-3 set in that year about the first of November, shortly after Adolphus and David had started to help their brother (William) with the cattle, and it continued almost one incessant storm until February. As there were some parties going out of the valley over the trail, John tried to advise Adolphus to arrange the trip and go with them, so as to be safer from the Indians. Adolphus had been in the mountains and among the Indians some, and did not apprehend any danger, so he started when he got ready, with his brother, only on this account the brothers at home, John and George, felt some anxiety for their safety, although both were well armed. Some little time after the boys had started, and the winter had set in, some emigrants coming over the trail picked up a hat, and it was brought to the Cooperís home, where it was recognized as Davidís, and as the boys had not been seen on the trail, it was at once believed that they had fallen victims of the Indians. George, with six other armed men, at once started in the storm to search for them. It was a difficult task, the county being so over flown with water. They spent several clays searching, but only found the remains of David among a lot of drift timber, in a stream near their camp, about 22 miles from home. The mangled condition of his remains made it evident that the boys had been killed while asleep, by having their heads cut to pieces, and probably with their own axes, and then thrown into the stream near by.
The men only saw two Indians, but they had some of the Cooper boys clothing on, so they were shot, and after satisfying themselves that nothing further could be done, they came home. George then started a second attempt to help his brother William with the cattle. William did not hear of the death of his brothers until he arrived home some two months after it's occurrence. The tragic death of the young men was a terrible shock to the surviving family, and also to the whole community, although such deeds were becoming very common in the country then. By the death of the brothers, there was also a great pecuniary loss, their outfit and animals, and seven head of oxen were lost, besides the extra expense attached to the remainder and various other expenses.
In the spring, George brought home the cattle, seventeen oxen and six cows, in fine condition. The oxen were worth $200.00 and the cows $125.00 each.
In the summer of 1853, after the crops were all in, it was agreed that William should go to the Sacramento again, and purchase more emigrant cattle, as he wished to retrieve some of his ill fortune of the previous year.
This time he only purchased cows for dairy purposes, and in company with a Mr. Reed, also bringing cattle into the country, and got as far as the ill fated Hay Fork again, for there he again became too ill to travel any further, and died in a few days of inflammatory rheumatism (at Dr. Wells home, again), induced by the hardships of both trips. Mr. Reed brought all the cattle safely into the settlement. The death of William left only two brothers now, John and George. They continued to carry out as far as possible, the previous plans of the whole farm.
In the summer of 1853, they started the first dairy in the country, which soon grew to sixty cows, and for some time their butter sold for $10.00 per pound. They also fatted the first pork in the country, which sold for 50 cents per pound. They also had near 200 head of stock cattle, 300 hogs, besides horses, mules and oxen to work the farm.
In 1854, besides extending their crops, they built a dairy house l00xl6 (feet) and 8 foot wall. The barn and milking house l00x40 feet, and 16 foot wall. The small timbers, flooring, boarding and shakes for these buildings were chiefly split out of one redwood tree. In the autumn of the same year, they built a little grist mill, and during the winter of 1855, they ground all the wheat, corn and buckwheat raised in the Eel river country, into flour and meal.
During 1855-56, they altered and enlarged their gristmill, and added a sawmill; these improvements were of great advantage to the surrounding settlements, and although costing the proprietors a very high price, would have been a profitable investment, if it had not been for the Indians.
At an early day, the brothers were satisfied that the interior of Bald Hill portion of the country would settle up with stockmen, and that they would require their flour and bacon from the coast settlements, for they established their mills as near the market as possible, right at the edge of the redwood belt of timber, and near the travel.
The advantages of those mills soon increased the amount of wheat manufactured by them to over 30,000 bushels per annum, and the expectations of the brothers were beginning to be realized, when the Indians interfered to prevent it, one thing the brothers did not foresee. As the stockmen settled the Bald Hill country, they encroached upon and crowded the Indians into the redwood forest from that side, and as the coast settlements had done the same from their side, the Indians became the more necessitated to exercise their pilfering propensities for a living, and therefore, the Cooper mill became a temptation for them to plunder for food.
In 1861, the brothers having shortly before this married two sisters (John m. Lucy P. DeLasaux; George her sister - Elenore Caroline DeLasaux; father Thomas, brother Albert Delasaux/Delaseaux (?)), John and his wife were living on the farm, while George and his wife were living at the mill, about three quarters of a mile apart.
Previous to this, the Indians had made several stealthy visits to the mill during the temporary absence of those working there, and plundered them of food, bedding tools, firearms, etc. But at this time, the Indians had become so pressed for food, and so emboldened by a knowledge of the use of firearms, that on the 23rd of July, 1861, about 40 of them attacked the mills while George and a hired man by the name of Robert Tinkle, were running the sawmill. Both mills were propelled by the same water wheel, but only one was run at a time. It required five men to run the grist mill, and only two to run the sawmill, but as it was not considered safe for less than four men to stay there, two other hired men were kept there to furnish logs to the mill, and work on the farm during the daytime when not so employed. The noise of the sawmill enabled the Indians to approach very close to the mills behind without being detected.. Tinkle had just moved to the head of the saw to receive instructions about the sawing, and both men were standing with their backs to the Indians, when Cooper was shot, two bullets going through his chest, one of which was no doubt intended for Tinkle, as the two men looked very much alike. But Tinkle escaped by jumping off the mill, and getting among the trees nearby, and Georgeís wife hearing the shooting, saw the Indians in time to grab her baby and run for her life. Both she and Tinkle had to run across a piece of open bottom land before ascending to the tableland where her sister (Lucy) lived. They were fired at several times while running, but fortunately, were not hit. They arrived at the upper home (of John & Lucy) in an exhausted condition, just as the two men who had gone up before them were getting in their first load of hay.
This terrible misfortune had left only one brother, now broken in spirit, and mired in property. Even he had come near falling a prey to the Indians on one of their visits prior to the one on which George was killed.
He and a hired man were down in a carpenter shop close by the mills, making some boxes to pack butter in for market. In the afternoon, near milking time, he started to drive up the cows off the bottom, leaving the other man to finish some work, when he got right among a party of Indians close to the mills, which had been waiting for them to depart before robbing the mills. The Indians began to shoot their arrows, the men being unarmed, had to run for their lives. Cooper had to pass within 25 feet of and Indian who wounded him slightly in one hand. The other was not hurt, but had and arrow pass through the sleeve of his flannel shirt, close to his body.
The establishment of the mills had involved the brothers very heavy, and the Indian troubles increased their debts very much, and prevented the possibility of paying them by making it too dangerous and expensive to run them, while it was impossible to sell them at any price, and under the surrounding circumstances, the farm and dairy would yield but little revenue, after paying running expenses. Mr. John Cooper petitioned the Government for military protection to enable him to run the mills, but the Rebellion prevented him from getting it, so that with over $12000.00 of debts against the estate, and two families to provide a living for, and only the farm and dairy that he could make use of, and the creditors would likely prevent or cripple that, he determined to part with all salable property, settle up with creditors, and go to some of the new mines (John Day, Canyon City, Oregon and Boise City, Idaho), until the Indians were subdued. By this arrangement, he paid off about $8,000.00 of the debts, and made satisfactory arrangements for the balance.
In the spring of 1862, Mr. Cooper, with his own and brothers family, and three former employees, went to the mines on the John Day River in eastern Oregon. There he laid out Canyon City and built and owned a hotel. He also acquired and interest in a ditch, and some city property in Idaho (Boise City?). The Indian troubles during the early sixties had driven all the stockmen and many other settlers out of the country, but the oil excitement of Mattole bringing in population, and the success of the state troops in subduing the Indians making it safer to live in the country, many of the former settlers began to return after a few years absence, and in the autumn of 1865, Mr. Cooper and family, and his sister-in-law, by then Mrs. Case, with her family returned to the homes. They found them much in decay, and that most of the young and unsaleable stock left on them had been lost. (missing) ...sufficient money to pay off all the debts against the estate, and had a few heifers, a team and wagon, and his farm left to start in the world anew.
Before leaving home, he had given a mortgage on the mill property for a small amount, expecting to redeem it, but the building of a steam grist and saw mill at Rhonerville, and the killing of his brother-in-law, (Albert) Delasaux by the Indians, nearly two years after the families had returned to their home & the Indians killed DeLasaux while he was plowing Georgeís field near the mills. Mr. Cooper found the mill property useless, and determined to let it go for the debt. This property, costing over $30,000 to establish, and that has earned over $8,000 per annum, was thrown away for a debt of $12,000, all owing to the Governments neglect and failure to protect it's citizens, and keep the Indians upon their reservations. These new troubles induced Mr. Cooper to sell out his home and leave the place where he had suffered so many trials and sorrows. He then bought a band of sheep, and rented them out on shares; this proving profitable, he soon bought a fine ranch of over 2000 acres on Mad River for his sheep. A business which prospered well until the tariff was taken off of wool, but it is said to be ruined now. Thus, it would appear that Mr. Cooper is peculiarly unfortunate in having the actions of the Government ruin his property, and prospect in life twice since he settled in this country. A few years after Mr. Cooper commenced sheep farming, he visited old friends and companions of his youth in Prince Edwardís Island, and married a daughter (Jemima Lydia Conohan) of one of them in Boston. On returning to California, he settled in Arcata, where he now resides. He has a family of four children, two boys and two girls, pretty nearly grown up (Arthur Fenimore, John W. Jr., May, and Gertrude).
He presented a claim to the Government many years ago, for a portion of his loss of property by the Indians, and through technicalities and other difficulties thrown in the way, i.e. to show proof of the losses; it seems probable that the Government will cheat him out of the chief portion, if not the whole claim.
It is forty years since this once strong and prosperous family came to California, only five of the original members are now living; namely John W. Cooper, now of Arcata; Rowena, now Mrs. Judge Walter Van Dyke of Los Angeles, she married her husband when he was District Attorney of Humboldt County; Caroline, now Mrs. Leonard Crocker Beckwith of Hydesville, she married her husband, a prosperous farmer, in the early fifties; Sarah (Glover), now the wife of J. J. McKinnon, a lumber merchant of San Francisco; and the son of Malvina and James Morrow, William Cooper (Morrow) & his wife Marie (Jenkins, of PEI), residing at Myrtle Point, Oregon, where he owns a store. All have prosperous, grown up families.
After reading the foregoing short history of this family, one cannot help thinking that a strange fatality seems to have pursued them, not withstanding their early dread of the Indians of the country, and particularly when we understand that William, Adolphus and Caroline, the first members of the family who went to Humboldt County, all attended a meeting of settlers that summer to decide various things, and that Adoiphus was among the most active in saving the Indians life, as many wanted to hang him, and yet he was among the early victims to the savagery of those he befriended.
NOTE: Recopied by Edward A. Cooper, 12-31-2000, with a few additions in parentthesis to clarify some passages. Otherwise, copied verbatim.
Aztec, New MexicoSee also: Passenger list reconstruction of the Voyage of the "Packett" to California.